In God's Path reader ï The Arab Conuests and the Creation of an Islamic EmpireDownload é Professor of Late Antiue and Early Islamic Middle Eastern History Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Nyu Robert G Hoyland

book In God's Path

In God's Path reader ï The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire Download é Professor of Late Antique and Early Islamic Middle EasterAr Hoyland narrates the emergence of a distinct Arab identity in the region of the Roman province Arabia and western Saudi Arabia which is at least as important for explaining the Arab conuests as Muhammad's revelation The Arabs are the principal almost sole focus of the Muslim conuest narratives and this is the norm for modern works on this subject Yet in the same period the Khazars Bulgars Avars and Turks established polities on the edges of the superpowers of Byzantium and Iran; in fact the Khazars and Turks continued to be major rivals of the Arabs in the seventh and eighth centuries The role of these peripheral states in the Arab success story is underscored in the narrative Innovative and accessible In God's Path is a welcome account of a transformative period in ancient history Beautiful book with helpful maps and the text size is about 13 which is great as it makes for easier reading Havent reaf it yet but really nice hard back

ePub È The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire ☆ Professor of Late Antique and Early Islamic Middle Eastern History Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Nyu Robert G Hoyland

Ch biographical and geographical information of the early Muslim sources this groundbreaking work delivers a fresh account of the Arab conuests and the establishment of an Islamic Empire by incorporating different approaches and different bodies of evidence Robert G Hoyland a leading Late Antiue scholar accomplishes this by first examining the wider world from which Mohammed and his followers emerged For Muslim sources the revelation of Islam to Muhammad is the starting point for their history and modern university departments have tended to reinforce this approach Late Antiue studies have done us the service of shedding much needed light on the 4th to 6th centuries thus giving us a better view of the nature of Middle Eastern society in the decades before the Arab conuests In particul This scholarly but very readable narrative continues in the same vein as the highly praised Hugh Kennedy's book on the Arab conuests published in 2007 Both authors while facing a major challenge because of paucity or biased sources try to strike a balance between the limited contemporary Christian testimonies written mostly by clerics or monks in the 7th century and the much later Muslim canonical sources of the 9th Century about long past events which relied on chains of oral transmittersAlthough they cover the same material I found Kennedy's account generally lively and particularly informative about the political and religious background of the various conuered lands By contrast Hoyland's account gives detailed analysis about the dynamics of the early Arab rule and the impact of the conuests on the populations He provides good insights about the Persian immense contribution to the forging of a distinct Islamic civilisation as well as hinting about the reasons for the early cleavage between the supporters of a sacred lineage Shiites and the egalitarian meritocratic SunnisBoth authors explain the success of the Muslim conuests as the product of a uniue set of historical circumstances with the fatal weakening of the two dominant empires after years of strife the preaching of a simple new monotheistic faith devoid of clergy in a Christian environment of fratricidal doctrinal disputes and the flexible mobility and tenacity of a hardy nomadic soldiery gratified by the promise of plunder Other factors were the occasional active collaboration of disgruntled misruled populations or their opportunist leaders as well as ethnic affinities particularly in the desert confines of Syria and Mesopotamia leading to alliances between the local population with the Arab invaders They both emphasise that the original Arab rulers were very reluctant to convert their subjects to their own religion for fear of undermining their source of taxation as they relied on the poll tax jizia imposed on the infidelsIt is refreshing to have now two solid accounts based on a multiplicity of sources to counteract the wayward claims of some revisionists who deny that the Arab invasions were triggered by the rise of Islam preached by the prophet Mohamed in the Hejaz or they ever took place

Professor of Late Antique and Early Islamic Middle Eastern History Institute for the Study of the Ancient World Nyu Robert G Hoyland ☆ Ancient Warfare and Civilization pdf

In God's Path The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire Ancient Warfare and CivilizationIn just over a hundred years from the death of the Mohammed in 632 to the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 the followers of the Prophet swept across the whole of the Middle East North Africa and Spain The conuered territory was larger than the Roman Empire at its greatest expansion and it was claimed for the Arabs in roughly half the time How they were able to engulf so many empires states and armies in such a short period of time is a uestion which has engaged historians since at least the ninth century Most recent popular accounts have been based almost solely on the early Muslim sources which were in short salvation history composed for the purpose of demonstrating that God had chosen the Arabs as his vehicle for spreading Islam throughout the world While exploiting the ri This is a book that I have been looking for After reading a number of books on how the Arabs managed to create their empire and the spread of Islam I was still looking for the answer to some fundamental uestions This bookshort as it is manages to describe this world changing process perfectly and in doing so addresses these uestions probably as far as is possible todayProfessor Hoyland has taken a different approach than most other writers in that he uses non Muslim sources from the time that this expansion took place and up until the break up of the Empire combined with available Muslim sources This is necessary since there are almost no Muslim sources from the seventh century and most of them are from two hundred years after events took place By bringing together information from all available sources the picture that emerges is far complex than what is usually presentedHe starts the book by describing the situation in the Middle East before the Arab expansion It is clear that the Arabs did not burst out of the desert but were well established in all border areas and in contact with surrounding empires It is uite surprising to read about Christian and Jewish Arabs living in these border zonesWhen the expansion really starts it is also uite clear that what drove it was the ambition to conuer and create an empire like any other state The spread if Islam came after this first wave of armed forcesProfessor Hoyland also manages to explain how it was possible to conuer such a vast territory when the Arabs were outnumbered at least 50 to 1 The Capture of Egypt was a particular interesting story By reading this one has to give credit to the Arabs for using a tactics that probably made their expansion far easier and also less costly for both them and the people they conueredFinally the spread of Islam took far longer than at least I had been aware of Egypt as an example did not have a majority of Muslims until four hundred years after the Arab invasionWhile the text is excellent the book itself would have been worth a higher production uality Maps and photos are all in black and white and the text itself has a font size that is from my point of view to smallBut what I learned from this book was a great deal Also a reflection that the people trying to spread Islam 1400 years ago were far less aggressive than some of those trying to do the same today Remember that the Arab aggression was about creating an empire and not spreading Islam This is an excellent book to put even today's events into perspective