FREE PDF Á BOOK The Long Divergence

MOBI Ý How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East ¸ Timur Kuran

The Long Divergence How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle EastIn the year 1000 the economy of the Middle East was at least as advanced as that of Europe But by 1800 the region had fallen dramatically behind in living standards technology and economic institutions In short the Middle East had failed to modernize economically as the West surged ahead What caused this long divergence? And why does the Middle East remain drastically underdeveloped compared to the West? In The Long Divergence one of the world's leading experts on Islamic economic institutions and the economy of the Middle East provides a new answer to these long debated uestions Timur Kuran argues that what slowed the economic development of the Middle East was not colonialism or geography still less Muslim attitudes or some incompatibility between Islam and capitalism Rather starting around the tenth century Islamic legal institutions which had benefitted the Middle Eastern economy in the early centuries of Islam began to act as a drag on development by slowing or blocking the emergence of central features of modern economic life including private capital accumulation corporations large scale production and impersonal exchange By the nineteenth century modern economic institutions began to be transplanted to the Middle East but its economy has not caught up And there is no uick fix today Low trust rampant corruption and weak civil societies all characteristic of the region's economies today and all legacies of its economic history will take generations to overcomeThe Long Divergence opens up a frank and honest debate on a crucial issue that even some of the most ardent secularists in the Muslim world have hesitated to discuss One must warn prospective readers that this book is not another anti Islamic polemical tractIt is a comprehensive scholarly account of the historical impact of Islamic jurisprudence on the development of economic life in the Middle EastWhilst the author holds sympathetic views about the moral content and the integrative role of the Sharia lawhe vigorously asserts that in the long run it became inimical to the creation of modern and robust forms of commercial and financial institutions This led in due course to the economic stagnation and political weakness of Islamic societies in sharp contrast to the dynamic WestIn support of his thesis he cites a number of legal practices which hindered long term capital accumulation in Islamic societies weakened the merchant class discouraged Guilds development and undermined the emergence of strong civil societies thus allowing the establishment of autocratic regimesFor instance he singles out the rigid laws of inheritance that inhibited in Muslim societies the formation of large durable and impersonal stock holding partnerships as in the case of the Western Trade companies and Banks created during the phase of European expansionCredit contracts in the Islamic world were relatively primitive and involved no than an oral promise because written documentation was often considered valueless and potentially fraudulentThe provision of urban social services was left to the institution of Waf ie personal charitable trusts that were inflexible and restricted the use of assets to create wealthOne of the major handicaps in the history of Islamic jurisprudence is the lack of a concept for legal personhood applied to corporations which was inimical to the formation of legally secure large financial and other municipal corporationsThe historical accumulation of these institutional weaknesses constrained the State's response to the modern economic challenges and in many instances it had to rely on extensive borrowing from foreign institutions thus deepening economic dependence in recent timesThe cogency of the insightful theses propounded by this remarkably well researched work acuires even urgency and pertinent actuality in the wake of the Arab SpringIt is becoming obvious with the ascendency of Political Islam that despite the lessons of History it remains hell bent on imposing a comprehensive unreformed Sharia law to the detriment of the impoverished classes desperate for economic improvement

Timur Kuran ¸ The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East PDF

In the year 1000 the economy of the Middle East was at least as advanced as that of Europe But by 1800 the region had fallen dramatically behind in living standards technology and economic institutions In short the Middle East had failed to modernize economically as the West surged ahead What caused this long divergence? And why does the Middle East remain drastically underdeveloped compared to the West? In The Long Divergence one of the world's leading experts on Islamic economic institutions and the economy of the Middle East provides a new answer to these long debated uestions Timur Kuran argues that what slowed the economic development of the Middle East was not colonialism or geography still less Muslim attitudes or some incompatibility between Islam and capitalism Rather starting around the tenth century Islamic legal institutions which had benefitted the Middle Eastern economy in the early centuries of Islam began to act as a drag on development by slowing or blocking the emergence of central features of modern economic life including private capital accumulation corporations large scale production and impersonal exchange By the nineteenth century modern economic institutions began to be transplanted to the Middle East but its economy has not caught up And there is no uick fix today Low trust rampant corruption and weak civil societies all characteristic of the region's economies today and all legacies of its economic history will take generations to overcomeThe Long Divergence opens up a frank and honest debate on a crucial issue that even some of the most ardent secularists in the Muslim world have hesitated to discuss I'd recommend this book to everyone interested in economic history of Middle East The author relates different economic issues from historical point of view

MOBI The Long Divergence

FREE PDF Á BOOK The Long Divergence ´ [KINDLE] ❅ The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East ❥ Timur Kuran – Goproled.co.uk In the year 1000 the economy of the Middle East was at least as advanced as that of Europe But by 1800 the region had fallen dramatically behind in living standards technology and econIn the year 1000 the economy of the Middle East was at least as advanced as that of Europe But by 1800 the region had fallen dramatically behind in living standards technology and economic institutions In short the Middle East had failed to modernize economically as the West surged ahead What caused this long divergence? And why does the Middle East remain drastically underdeveloped compared to the West? In The Long Divergence one of the world's leading experts on Islamic economic institutions and the economy of the Middle East provides a new answer to these long debated uestions Timur Kuran argues that what slowed the economic development of the Middle East was not colonialism or geography still less Muslim attitudes or some incompatibility between Islam and capitalism Rather starting around the tenth century Islamic legal institutions which had benefitted the Middle Eastern economy in the early centuries of Islam began to act as a drag on development by slowing or blocking the emergence of central features of modern economic life including private capital accumulation corporations large scale production and impersonal exchange By the nineteenth century modern economic institutions began to be transplanted to the Middle East but its economy has not caught up And there is no uick fix today Low trust rampant corruption and weak civil societies all characteristic of the region's economies today and all legacies of its economic history will take generations to overcomeThe Long Divergence opens up a frank and honest debate on a crucial issue that even some of the most ardent secularists in the Muslim world have hesitated to discuss I bought this book after reading a review about it in a magazine The subject is interesting both because I was interested why islamic countries are so much behind Europe while they once were advanced I am also interested what factors generally have promoted progress and which not The point of view that the main factor affecting progress is in the system or culture level is interesting I have also encountered this point of view in innovation literature that a main driver behind a company's success should be the company cultureThe bad thing in the book is that it is little bit hard to read very academic style and some difficult vocabulary for someone for whom english is a foreign language