DOC ç READER The Varieties of Religious Experience ☆ A Study in Human Nature ✓ GOPROLED

KINDLE The Varieties of Religious Experience

DOC ç READER The Varieties of Religious Experience ☆ A Study in Human Nature ✓ GOPROLED Ä [Read] ➵ The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature Author William James – Goproled.co.uk William James January 11 1842 August 27 1910 was an AWilliam James January 11 1842 August 27 1910 was an American philosopher and psychologist and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century one of the most influential US philosophers and has been labelled the Father of American psychologyAlong with Charles Sanders Peirce James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology A Review of General Psychology analysis published in 2002 ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place after Wilhelm Wundt who is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology James also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim W E B Du Bois Edmund Husserl Bertrand Russell Ludwig Wittgenstein Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty and has even influenced former US President Jimmy CarterBorn into a wealthy family James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James James trained as a physician and taught anatomy at Harvard but never practiced medicine Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and then philosophy James wrote widely on many topics including epistemology education metaphysics psychology religion and mysticism Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical Empiricism an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of Religious Experience an investigation of different forms of religious experience including theories on mind cureThe Varieties of Religious Experience comprises James' edited Gifford Lectures on natural theology which were delivered at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1901 and 1902 The lectures concerned the nature of religion and the neglect of science in the academic study of religionSoon after its publication Varieties entered the Western canon of psychology and philosophy and has remained in print for over a centuryJames later developed his philosophy of pragmatism There are many overlapping ideas in Varieties and his 1907 book Pragmatism wikipediaorg Book Review The Varieties of Religious Experience by William JamesImagine you live in a sandboxno wait Imagine you a tadpole in a pond no wait Imagine you’re a prisoner in a cave facing a wall Or imagine you see the same reformulation of the platonic cave restated over and over ad nauseam with simple changes made so an author can present it as if it is their own brilliant thought experiment This is one of my central problems with theology The tendency to wait a generation restates the same ideas and then fall to the same rebuttals Every example given assumes that there are additional metaphysical realities in its initial premise These external areas are known analogously by definition But can this be writ large to encompass reality itself? In every one of these examples we know there exists an external reality to know That the limitations of our knowledge in these situations allow for an “external reality” to the self contained metaphysical unit of which we are currently aware However I believe the limitations of our knowledge of reality and mapping of it are not the same as confession that there can exist than what is This is my general problem with most theology That on some level there is always going to be an attempt at special pleading and begging the uestion Which after a long and rambling preamble brings me to “The Variety of Religious Experience” by William James This book was recommended to me by my philosophy teacher as a representative text to modern and liberal theology and spirituality At around 590 pages the book spares no effort in trying to present James views on religion as the pertain to his overall philosophical systems James occupies a very important place in the history of thought Like Freud he is very influential in his founding of the functionalist school of psychology but to a large extent his ideas are outmoded by time James also made important contributions to the philosophical fields of pragmatism which along with his psychological and theological work are central parts of the project which he is undertaking in this book Once again these have the feeling of being antiuated when it comes to the contemporary arguments surrounding them Due to the sheer size of this book it is probably best to focus on a few points First what is the essence of religion that James is trying to articulate in this book? Second what is philosophical pragmatism and what is its role in this project Finally what are the successes and problems that emerge from this project? The main concern of the project which James undertakes in the book is to elevate or establish the role of religious experience in the grounding of spiritual knowledge This appears to be a response to school of BritishScottish empiricism especially Hume which laid out the principles of induction as the primary basis and challenge to the grounding of knowledge claims This school of natural philosophy would eventually morph into what is known as the scientific method in the 20th century winning the intellectual war by its predictive and fruitful endeavors This led to several problems which are still argued about in contemporary society which include the validity and implications of religious knowledge The serious challenges to the epistemic place of the church had been essentially won by the anti establishment rationalist community The works of the deists such as Paine Voltaire and Diderot had seen major impacts on the formation of the modern nation states which had severely limited the clerical authority in these areas and in the case of Paine introduced the commoner to one of the first popular cases of biblical criticism Even explicit atheist works had begun to emerge in the European mechanists like the Baron D’Holbach In particular the criticisms of David Hume on causation and miracles had caused a great deal of upheaval in the intellectual community of the day Hume had challenged causation as a constant correlation between events and not a direct observation of cause which means that we can perhaps never ground causation only expectation However the constant observation of correlation perhaps establishes that the cause is present and that we are at least justified in expecting that through repeated exposure that there will be uniformity It is in this system that Hume uestions the validity of miracles as events that defy normative experience and provide only anecdotal evidence to establish their validity James for his part does not seem to attack this idea by making the claim that apologists such as John Lennox make that Hume is defining miracles out of existence by denying the prescriptive powers of God I actually believe that Hume is addressing our ability to assess their epistemic character instead he claims addresses the nature of anecdotal religious experience Now Hume had already raised uestions about the ability of anecdotal evidence to ground metaphysical claims that they are not cumulative in their uantity nor does their uality change on the basis of adherence but James wants to state there is still a fundamental character to them and the variety points to a universality of experience If we cannot ground religious truth in events because we do not have acuaintance knowledge of them then how can we evaluate religion? Here James says that the anecdotal evidence points to an external reality a “” that is sensible but not understandable Here James tries to establish a character to religious experience in empiricist terms It should be unexplainable as it exists beyond the natural and illuminating since it establishes new knowledge or thought From his point James establishes further points of how man relates to these experiences They should cause surrender to a superior power a sense of love be idealistic and bring a sense of elation This sense of idealism is the main focus of the book and is established by examining the character and examples of various religious experiences across cultures but mainly focusing on the western and Christian world that he is familiar with He does not continue to further evaluate particular institutions surrounding these experiences which he calls over beliefs that would reuire knowledge and judgment than he believed was available to him Once James has established his psychological view of religious experience he tries to ground the broader philosophical implications in his theory of pragmatism Here James takes a middle road between the correspondence theories of truth which states that truth is relational to the external world and coherence theories of truth which state that truth is relational to system of belief In my interpretation of his argument it seems that James states that the function and utility of a belief points to its relative truth to the individual whilst pointing to broader implications about the truth of the belief So if a belief is true it must provide some sort of observable function and tha

KINDLE ☆ A Study in Human Nature ´ William James

William James January 11 1842 August 27 1910 was an American philosopher and psychologist and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century one of the most influential US philosophers and has been labelled the Father of American psychologyAlong with Charles Sanders Peirce James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology A Review of General Psychology analysis published in 2002 ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place after Wilhelm Wundt who is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology James also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim W E B Du Bois Edmund Husserl Bertrand Russell Ludwig Wittgenstein Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty and has even influenced former US President Jimmy CarterBorn into a wealthy family James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James James trained as a physician and taught anatomy at Harvard but never practiced medicine Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and then philosophy James wrote widely on many topics including epistemology education metaphysics psychology religion and mysticism Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical Empiricism an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of Religious Experience an investigation of different forms of religious experience including theories on mind cureThe Varieties of Religious Experience comprises James' edited Gifford Lectures on natural theology which were delivered at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1901 and 1902 The lectures concerned the nature of religion and the neglect of science in the academic study of religionSoon after its publication Varieties entered the Western canon of psychology and philosophy and has remained in print for over a centuryJames later developed his philosophy of pragmatism There are many overlapping ideas in Varieties and his 1907 book Pragmatism wikipediaorg William James gives extensive examples from the experiences of saints and ordinary persons as told in the religious literature and in diaries and letters James distinguishes from the reality to the person of the experience and the general truth What is real for the individual is of course no indication of the universal reality or irreality of the experienceReligious experience may lead to an optimistic or pessimistic belief either we are to be saved life is good' or we will be damned; life is a losing struggle Thus religion can be a comforter or a cause for chronic anxietyJames makes no judgement about the truth of religion But he does affirm that the religious or spiritual impulse is widespread amongst human beings if not universal

William James ´ A Study in Human Nature TEXT

The Varieties of Religious Experience A Study in Human NatureWilliam James January 11 1842 August 27 1910 was an American philosopher and psychologist and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century one of the most influential US philosophers and has been labelled the Father of American psychologyAlong with Charles Sanders Peirce James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology A Review of General Psychology analysis published in 2002 ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place after Wilhelm Wundt who is widely regarded as the founder of experimental psychology James also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim W E B Du Bois Edmund Husserl Bertrand Russell Ludwig Wittgenstein Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty and has even influenced former US President Jimmy CarterBorn into a wealthy family James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James James trained as a physician and taught anatomy at Harvard but never practiced medicine Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and then philosophy James wrote widely on many topics including epistemology education metaphysics psychology religion and mysticism Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology; Essays in Radical Empiricism an important text in philosophy; and The Varieties of Religious Experience an investigation of different forms of religious experience including theories on mind cureThe Varieties of Religious Experience comprises James' edited Gifford Lectures on natural theology which were delivered at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland in 1901 and 1902 The lectures concerned the nature of religion and the neglect of science in the academic study of religionSoon after its publication Varieties entered the Western canon of psychology and philosophy and has remained in print for over a centuryJames later developed his philosophy of pragmatism There are many overlapping ideas in Varieties and his 1907 book Pragmatism wikipediaorg A classic if you’re lit reviewing for your research